It is now increasingly recognized that the microbiome architecture can inform as to optimal dietary and natural health product use strategies. As indicated in Figure 4, scientific evidence based on robustly designed and implemented clinical trials can predict what is the best food or natural product supplement to use to optimize health outcomes, based on an individual’s specific microbiome pattern. This is done through use of randomized clinical trials which represent the gold standard to achieve evidence-based medicine. These trials allow for identification of the numerous factors that coexist and interact to influence the effect diet and natural products can have on health outcomes. Data-processing algorithms can now be used to identify aspects of the clinical profile of individuals including data on the microbiome that predict such health responses.